Yoga for General Physical Health

We're always looking for more data to add to our index, so if you know of a yoga research study that you don't see here, pass it along to us. Send relevant scholarly articles to Yoga Alliance® supports the continued research on yoga’s benefits, and we will continue to update the page with more research on more health topics. 

Last updated: July 19, 2017

Yoga Alliance recommends that any individuals with health concerns consult with a qualified health care practitioner to discuss whether yoga is right for them, but we are aware that yoga can be used in the medical treatment context by appropriately qualified and licensed healthcare practitioners. Yoga Alliance credentials do not serve as qualifications for the diagnosis or treatment of health conditions.

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DC “Our results show that transitions from one held phase of a pose to another produces higher normalized muscle activity than the held phases of the poses and that overall activity is greater during highspeed yoga than standard-speed yoga. Therefore, the transition speed and associated number of poses should be considered when targeting specific improvements in performance.”
–Potiaumpai et al (2017), Complimentary Therapies in Medicine


“Though we cannot change our biology or chronological age we can definitely reverse/slow down the pace at which we age by adopting YMLI [Yoga and Meditation based lifestyle intervention]. This is the first study to demonstrate improvement in both cardinal and metabotrophic biomarkers of cellular aging and longevity in apparently healthy population after Yoga and Meditation based lifestyle intervention.”
–Tolahunase et al (2017), Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity



“There [was] significant improve[ment] in menstrual pain, physical fitness, and QOL [quality of life] in the yoga group more than the control group. Therefore, this specially designed yoga program may be a possible complementary treatment for PD [primary dysmenorrhea].”
–Yonglitthipagon et al (2017), Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies



“The findings suggest that yoga provides improvement in upper limb and in abdominal muscular endurance.”
–Shiraishi et al (2016), Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice



“Both the specially designed yoga program and PWT [power training] programs can significantly improve physical performance in older persons with PD [Parkinson’s disease].”
–Ni et al (2016), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation



“Yoga is a potential intervention to reduce fear of falling and improve balance in older adults.”
–Nick et al (2016), PM&R



“State mindfulness plays a role in predicting change in self-objectification and reasons for exercise during yoga practice.”
–Cox et al (2016), Psychology of Sport and Exercise



“The results demonstrate that MY-OT [Merging Yoga and Occupational Therapy] is a potential intervention to improve multiple fall related outcomes for people with stroke.”
–Schmind et al (2016), Complimentary Therapies in Medicine



“An 8-week chair yoga program was associated with reduction in pain, pain interference, and fatigue, and improvement in gait speed, but only the effects on pain interference were sustained 3 months post intervention.”
–Park et al (2016), Journal of the American Geriatrics Society



“The study recommends implementing commitment-based management approach and techniques such as Sahaja Yoga meditation in the army.”
– Sharma et al (2015), IIMB Management Review



“Classical Indian Yoga appears to be highly effective in the management of FM [Fibromyalgia] having a positive impact on physical, psychological and social aspects of FM.”
– Trivedi et al (2014), Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases



“This randomized controlled trial has shown that the practice of Sahaja yoga does have limited beneficial effects on some objective and subjective measures of the impact of asthma.”
– Manocha et al (2002), Thorax



“There was a significantly greater improvement in the group who practiced yoga in the weekly number of attacks of asthma, scores for drug treatment, and peak flow rate.”
– Nagarathna et al (1985), British Medical Journal



“Implementation of worksite yoga and workout facilities and minimal fruit interventions should be considered by employers to promote transitions into healthier lifestyles and thereby health.”
– Strijk et al (2012), Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health



“. . . participation in yoga-based fitness classes was related to lower self-objectification and exercising more for health and fitness.”
– Prichard et al (2008), Psychology of Sport and Exercise



“State mindfulness plays a role in predicting change in self-objectification [how individuals internalize the sexual objectification of male and female bodies] and reasons for exercise during yoga practice.”
– Cox et al (2016), Psychology of Sport and Exercise



“Yoga was as effective as Tai Chi and standard balance training for improving postural stability and may offer an alternative to more traditional programs.”
– Ni et al (2014), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation



“Findings of this exploratory study suggest that yoga practice may improve hip extension, increase stride length, and decrease anterior pelvic tilt in healthy elders, and that yoga programs tailored to elderly adults may offer a cost-effective means of preventing or reducing age-related changes in these indices of gait function.”
– DiBenedetto et al (2005), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation



“Awareness of breathing, physical movement, and increased relaxation were reported by participants as potential mechanisms for yoga’s salutary effects.”
– Mackenzie et al (2014), Consciousness and Cognition



“The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception.”
– Hernández et al (2016), PLOS ONE



“These preliminary results establish the potential for AYT [Ashtanga-based Yoga Therapy] training to develop the remaining somatosensory and vestibular responses used to optimize postural stability in a VI [visual impairment] population.”
– Jeter et al (2015), PLOS ONE



“Thus, a 30 min program of yogic stretch and breathing exercises which is simple to learn and which can be practiced even by the elderly had a markedly ‘invigorating’ effect on perceptions of both mental and physical energy and increased high positive mood.”
– Wood et al (1993), Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine




“Results show that compared to rajas, sattva enhances transformational leadership, whereas tamas reduces it. Further, Karma Yoga enhances transformational leadership when the leader is sattvic, but does not enhance transformational leadership when the leader is rajasic. Results imply that organizations interested in enhancing transformational leadership should develop sattvic qualities in their managers and encourage them to be duty oriented.”
– Agarwalla et al (2015), Journal of Human Values



“The purpose of this pilot-level randomized controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of yoga to improve self-care and reduce burnout among nurses. Compared with controls (n = 20), yoga participants (n = 20) reported significantly higher self-care as well as less emotional exhaustion and depersonalization upon completion of an 8-week yoga intervention.”
– Alexander et al (2015), Workplace & Health Safety



“Results showed that yoga males had different patterns of autonomic responding to speech task compared with all other participants. . . This was interpreted as evidence of situation-appropriate autonomic regulation and suggests long-term yoga practice could be particularly beneficial for males in terms of autonomic flexibility.”
– Friis et al (2013), Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine



“Areas in which yoga was perceived as being able to make important contributions included the concept of body-mind-soul; vegetarianism; postural correction and integration of movements; peace culture; the cultivation of virtuous values (e.g., abstention from addictive substances); spiritual consciousness; integration of the self; cultivation of awareness; brain oxygenization; cultivation of discipline and improved quality of life. . . Yoga is seen as a group of useful physical, social, and philosophical practices for the health field.”
– Siegel et al (2009), Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine



“Fluid intelligence declined slower in yoga practitioners and meditators combined than in controls. Resting state functional networks of yoga practitioners and meditators combined were more integrated and more resilient to damage than those of controls.”
– Gard et al (2014), Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience



“One study shows that yoga training for 6 months improves lung function, strength of inspiratory and expiratory muscles as well as skeletal muscle strength and endurance. It is suggested that yoga be introduced at school level in order to improve physiological functions, overall health and performance of students.”
– Reddy et al (2010), British Journal of Sports Medicine



“As the result of this study and other similar studies yoga practice has benefits for the management of the symptoms of these illnesses, and can create balance in the physical, emotional, mental and spiritual capacities of individuals, so it can be used as alternative health practice to prevent depression and anxiety.”
– Rahimi et al (2010), British Journal of Sports Medicine



“The results suggest that Cyclic Meditation [alternating cycles of yoga postures and supine rest] brings about a greater improvement in performance in this [six-letter cancellation] task, which requires selective attention, concentration, visual scanning abilities, and a repetitive motor response.”
– Telles et al (2007), Perceptual & Motor Skills



“Hence yoga training for a month reduced the planning and execution time [to complete the Tower of London task] in simple (2-moves) as well as complex tasks (4, 5-moves) and facilitated reaching the target with a smaller number of moves in a complex task (4-moves).”
– Manjunath et al (2001), Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology



“The results show that Bikram yoga positively affected psychological and physical health in the sample population.”
– Hewett et al (2011), Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness



“A significant improvement in 9 of the 11 factors of SUBI [Subjective Well Being Inventory] was observed at the end of 4 months, in these participants. The paper thus, reiterates the beneficial effects of regular practice of yoga on subjective well being.”
– Malathi et al (2000), Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology



“Our study shows that yoga training for 6 months improves lung function, strength of inspiratory and expiratory muscles as well as skeletal muscle strength and endurance. It is suggested that yoga be introduced at school level in order to improve physiological functions, overall health and performance of students.”
– Mandanmohan et al (2003), Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology



“The study suggests that one month of yoga improved reversal ability, eye-hand co-ordination, speed and accuracy which are necessary for mirror star tracing.”
– Telles et al (2006), Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology



“We suggest that [Suryanamaskar (SN), a yogic technique] may be used as an effective training means to improve neuro-muscular abilities.”
– Bhavanani et al (2013), Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology



“The results suggest a role for high frequency yoga breathing in improving the hand grip strength as an immediate effect.”
– Telles et al (2014), Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology



“These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.”
– Qu et al (2013), PLOS ONE



“Our results show that both slow and fast pranayamas are beneficial on most of the tested [pulmonary function] parameters, and fast pranayama was more effective than slow pranayama. These changes by both pranayama techniques can be attributed to improved autonomic tone toward parasympathodominance resulting in a relaxed state of mind, better subjective well-being and concentration on the task, improved lung ventilation and strength of respiratory muscles.“
– Dinesh et al (2015), International Journal of Yoga



“Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of these parameters.“
– Halder et al (2015), International Journal of Yoga



“Within the limitations of the study, there was [a] significant role of physical activity on the quality and quantity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders experienced by dentists. Yoga was found to be more effective than other modes of physical activities.”
– Koneru et al (2015), Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry



“The [leukocyte telomere length] is well-preserved in people who practice Yoga regularly with lower systemic oxidative stress compared to those who have a relatively sedentary. The habitual yoga practice seems to inhibit replicative cellular senescence.”
– Krishna et al (2015), Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research



“A combined pelvic muscle exercise and yoga program was effective for improving overall urinary incontinence. Daily performance of pelvic muscle exercises was positively correlated with incontinence factor and with quality of life related to urinary tract symptoms.”
Kim et al (2015), Japan Journal of Nursing Science



“In conclusion, this study showed that a 12-week Hatha yoga program produced beneficial changes in cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility for Chinese adults. Given the…encouraging results of this study, yoga may be a promising alternative form of exercise.”
– Lau et al (2015), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“The results suggest that yoga produces improvements in emotional functioning in healthy subjects and people who suffer from some physical illnesses, particularly in psychological self-reported variables. In summary, emerging evidence suggests that yoga may help foster healthier psychological responses, indicating its potential as an emotion regulation strategy.”
– Menezes et al (2015), Psychology & Neuroscience



“The regular practices of yoga for a period of five months by young healthy engineering students enhance different types of cognitive skills [and] resulted in many health benefits such as improvement in heart rate variability. [Yoga] practices resulted in effective improvements in physiological parameters, indirectly improving psychological parameters and various cognitive functions.”
– Nagendra et al (2015), Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine



“Contemporary [hatha yoga] (asanas + pranayamas + dhyana), seen holistically, is effective for certain health problems such as hypertension, [eating disorders], stress, among others. Also, the practice of Yoga is associated to healthy [eating behaviors].“
– Ramos-Jiménez et al (2015), International Journal of Yoga



“. . .regular practice of yoga may have neuroprotective effects against whole brain age-related [grey matter] decline. Additionally, our results suggest that more weekly regular yoga practice is associated with larger brain volume in areas involved in bodily representation, attention, self-relevant processing, visualization, and stress regulation.”
– Villemure et al (2015), Frontiers in Human Neuroscience



“The results show a significant increase in flexibility, indicating 6 weeks of single session yoga training may be effective in increasing erector spinae and hamstring flexibility.“
– Amin et al (2014), Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies



“A weekly yoga program with home practice is feasible, acceptable, and safe for older women with knee [osteoarthritis], and shows therapeutic benefits.”
– Cheung et al (2014)BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“There is a statistically significant increase in [vital capacity, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, breath holding time, endurance and peak expiratory flow rate] following yoga training. Yoga practice can be advocated to improve pulmonary functions in healthy individuals and hence to prevent respiratory diseases in future.”
– Karthik et al (2014), Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research



“Our results indicate that different poses can produce specific muscle activation patterns which may vary due to practitioners’ skill levels. This information can be used in designing rehabilitation and training programs and for cuing during yoga training [and reducing injury potential]. Knowing these patterns can help with class design for persons with special needs or limitations.”
– Ni et al (2014), Complementary Therapies in Medicine



“Regular yogic practice can improve resting metabolism and redox status of the practitioner.”
– Pal et al (2014), Journal of Physical Activity & Health



“Yoga is shown to have a greater effect on range of motion at the shoulder and hip than static stretching in a healthy population. With further positive results, yoga may prove to have an important therapeutic role with joint restrictions.“
– Sager et al (2014), International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation



“Yoga-lifestyle practice can increase and balance acumeridian energies; long-term practice decreases group [standard deviations]. Our results suggest reasons why carefully selected yoga practices have significant therapeutic effects: 3 weeks yoga-lifestyle intervention reliably increases conductivity at all Jing-Well acupoints, improves energy stability, and reduces [standard deviations] on all variables; indicating that regulation of Qi energies in the acumeridians improves.“
– Sharma et al (2014), International Journal of Yoga



“[South Icelandic villagers] were offered to participate in a yoga program subsequent to an earthquake. [T]he observed trend toward improved sleep quality and social relations deserve further exploration in larger effectiveness studies on the impact of Hatha yoga on recovery after natural disaster.”
– Thordardottir et al (2014), Complementary Therapies in Medicine



“Our results support the findings of previous randomised trials that suggest regular yoga practice may mitigate against the effects of metabolic syndrome.”
– Tyagi et al (2014), BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“MBSR (mindfulness-based stress reduction) is safe and feasible for adults with migraines. …Secondary outcomes demonstrated this intervention had a beneficial effect on headache duration, disability, self-efficacy, and mindfulness.”
– Wells et al (2014), Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain



“A short course of yoga has a beneficial effect on the reaction time and it can be used as a tool for improving the reaction time.”
– Begum et al (2013), Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research



“A 10-week hatha yoga intervention delivered at the office worksite during lunch hour did not improve [high frequency] power or other [heart rate variability] parameters. However, improvements in flexibility, state anxiety and musculoskeletal fitness were noted with high adherence.”
– Cheema et al (2013), BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“In conclusion, patients with chronic diseases who regularly practiced yoga reported better overall health status and physical quality of life than those who did not. Practicing yoga under naturalistic conditions seems to be associated with improved physical health in chronically diseased patients.”
– Cramer et al (2013), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“Yoga improved regulation of Qi levels in acumeridian meridians as well as increasing them…before and after measures of the three week yoga life-style intervention on 33 healthy young adults supported the hypothesis that overall Chi energy for the group would be increased.“
– Nagilla et al (2013), International Journal of Yoga



“The [Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction] program is effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression, perceived stress, [blood pressure] and [body mass index] in patients with [coronary heart disease].“
– Parswani et al (2013), International Journal of Yoga



“The present study was aimed at comparing the apoptotic index (AI) and DNA damage of advanced yoga practitioners with those of breast cancer patients. …When one adopts a yogic way of life with minimal or no abuse to the body and mind, it tends toward a healthy body, which reflects itself in the cellular parameters of [apoptotic index] and DNA damage.“
– Ram et al (2013), International Journal of Yoga



“Participants agreed yoga improved: energy…happiness…social relationships…sleep…and weight. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions."
– Ross et al (2013), Complementary Therapies in Medicine



“To summarize, our study demonstrates that [fast and slow] pranayama practice are equally beneficial in reducing perceived stress but significant benefit on physiological parameters is seen only in subjects practicing slow pranayama.“
– Sharma et al (2013), International Journal of Yoga



“We conclude that yoga is an effective treatment option for the patients with insomnia. There was a significant improvement in the stress scores and the self confidence scores in the experimental [yoga] group.”
– Sobana et al (2013), Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research



“Beneficial effects of pranayama started appearing within a week of regular practice. …An overall reduction in pulse rate was observed in all the eleven volunteers. Statistically significant changes were observed in the Pranayama group volunteers in the [galvanic skin resistance] values.”
– Turankar et al (2013), The Indian Journal of Medical Research



“Positive effects of yoga have been shown in persons with mental-health problems, eating disorders and irritable bowel syndrome. There is considerable evidence that mind-body interventions have mild to moderate effects on physical symptoms, psychological functioning and [quality of life], and may be particularly helpful for children coping with acute pain…chronic abdominal pain…and mental-health problems.”
– Hartmann et al (2012), Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies



“Long-term Sahaja yoga meditation practitioners appear to experience better quality of life and functional health than the general population. A relationship between functional health, especially mental health, and the frequency of meditative experience…exists that may be causal.”
– Manocha et al (2012), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine



““…[Muscular Chain Therapy], using modified yoga positions, is an efficient technique in terms of improving posture, reducing pain, and solving related musculoskeletal problems.“
– Pimentel do Rosario (2012), Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy



“Home practice of yoga predicted health better than years of practice or class frequency. Different physical poses and yoga techniques may have unique health benefits.”
– Ross et al (2012), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“Our study indicates that [sudarshan kriya and pranayam] practice has the potential to overcome [exam stress] by improving lipid profile and hematological parameters, [both of which exam stress impact.]“
– Subramanian et al (2012), International Journal of Yoga



“Both kapalabahati [high frequency yoga breathing] and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.“
– Telles et al (2012), International Journal of Yoga



“This is the first study to quantify the physical demands of yoga pose variations, using biomechanical methodologies. Our findings suggest that common, long-held conceptions about pose modifications can be counter-intuitive.”
– Yu et al (2012), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“The present study reports that [Surya namaskar] has positive physiological benefits as evidenced by improvement of pulmonary function, respiratory pressures, hand grip strength and endurance, and resting cardiovascular parameters.“
– Bhavanani et al (2011), International Journal of Yoga



“[These results] support the feasibility and acceptability of a tailored Iyengar Yoga intervention for breast cancer survivors with persistent fatigue. There was a significant improvement in fatigue scores from pre- to post-intervention that was maintained at the 3-month post-intervention followup.”
– Bower et al (2011), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“Findings based on…[randomized clinical trials] available in the literature suggest that [complementary and alternative medicine] exercises—Tai Chi, qigong, and yoga—demonstrate considerable promise in the management of [osteoarthritis] symptoms.”
– Chyu et al (2011), Arthritis



“…the regular practice of yoga may lead to improved range of motion in the performance of activities of daily living in elderly women.“
– Gonçalves et al (2011), Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics



“[The] authors conclude that yoga has a significant effect in ameliorating the autonomic, endocrine, and psychological changes brought about by the examination stress. Yoga keeps the anxiety levels in check such that it rises only to [a] level where it is beneficial and not harmful.“
– Gopal et al (2011), International Journal of Yoga



“A single month of integral yoga practices imparts significant benefits to healthy volunteers in all psychological and health variables. It improves sustained attention and [emotional intelligence]. It improves the personality of the healthy person by increasing sattva and decreasing rajas and tamas. It also improves all dimensions of general health.“
– Khemka et al (2011), International Journal of Yoga



“Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.”
– Martarelli et al (2011), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“A long-term yoga practice was associated with little or no obesity in a non-probability sample of women over 45 years. Relationships showed a dose-response effect, with increased yoga experience predicting lower BMI and reduced medication use.”
– Moliver et al (2011), International Journal of Yoga



“[The] yoga-based [Yogic Prana Energization Technique] accelerates fracture healing.”
– Oswal et al (2011), The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine



“This pilot study suggests that a yoga-based, comprehensive wellness program is both feasible and efficacious in creating positive, short-term improvements in multiple domains of health and wellness for a population of employees. Statistically significant improvements were observed in weight, diastolic blood pressure, flexibility score, body fat percentage, and overall quality of life.“
– Thomley et al (2011), Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing



“A small, but growing body of randomized clinical trials suggests that yoga may have promise for persistent pain conditions… yoga could be used as a tool to help patients better address the biological, social, and psychological aspects of persistent pain.”
– Wren et al (2011)Pain: The Journal of the International Association for the Study of Pain



“This study explored the benefits of yoga on functional fitness, flexibility, and perceived stress [for firefighters. Results] revealed significant improvements in the Functional Movement Screen…trunk flexibility and perceived stress. Participants reported…feeling more focused and less musculoskeletal pain. These findings…indicate that participants benefitted from yoga.“
– Cowen (2010), Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies



“…in both healthy and diseased populations, yoga may be as effective as or better than exercise at improving a variety of health-related outcome measures.”
– Ross et al (2010), Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine



“If yoga dampens or limits stress-related changes, then regular practice could have substantial health benefits.”
– Kiecolt-Glaser et al (2010), Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Behavioral Medicine



“After 6 months of silver yoga exercises, the sleep quality, depression, and health status of older adults were all improved.“
– Chen et al (2009), International Journal of Nursing Studies



“These findings indicate that caregivers [who provide unpaid care to an individual with a disease or disability] in a yoga program may receive some benefits. After [an] 8-week yoga program, lower body strength increased significantly…and other notable trends occurred in terms of coping, upper body strength and aerobic endurance.”
– Puymbroeck et al (2007), Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine



“These findings indicate that regular hatha yoga practice can elicit improvements in the health-related aspects of physical fitness.”
Tran et al (2007), Preventive Cardiology



“‘Pranayama’ or yogic breathing as a method of re-expansion of lungs in patients with pleural effusion was studied. The results revealed that the patients practising Pranayama demonstrated a quicker re-expansion of the lungs in most of the measures of lung function.”
– Prakasamma et al (2006), Journal of Advanced Nursing



“Yoga practices help to retain slot wave sleep and enhance the REM sleep state in the middle age. Overall, the study demonstrates the possible beneficial role of yoga in sleep–wakefulness behavior.”
– Sulekha et al (2006), Sleep and Biological Rhythm



“New participants in a community-based mind-body training program reported poor health-related quality of life at baseline and moderate improvements after 3 months of practice [of mind-body practices such as yoga.]”
– Lee et al (2004), Journal of General Internal Medicine



“Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment [for asthma] include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures.”
– Lehrer et al (2002), Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology



“In eight yoga instructors, we examined changes in brain rhythms and natural killer cell activity (NK activity) during yoga exercises. We found that the practice of all three exercises studied resulted in increased alpha activity. During respiratory exercises (pranayama)…changes in NK activity were observed in the eight subjects, positively correlating to increases in alpha frequencies.”
– Kamei et al (2001), Stress & Health


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