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Yoga Research > Disease and Disorders > Cardiovascular Conditions

Cardiovascular Conditions heart disease, hypertension, stroke, etc.


Cardiovascular Health

Below is a list of citations of research articles published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals relevant to the topic on this page. There are two types of citations:

  1. Citations for review, summary, and scientific/clinical hypothesis papers that summarize and analyze the yoga research in this specific area; these are the best resource for becoming familiar with the literature;
  2. Citations of individual study publications that are notable from a historical, scientific, mechanistic, clinical, sociological, epidemiological, philosophical, and/or policy aspect.

Links for many of these citations will take you to the full-text of the publication. Otherwise, in the case of publications copyrighted by the journal, links will take you to abstracts of the publications, and you then can acquire the full text articles by purchasing them directly from the journal, by obtaining free access through a medical library that subscribes to the journal, or by directly requesting them from the corresponding author via email.

Review Papers

Review Papers

Evidence Base of Yoga Studies on Cardiovascular Health: A Bibliometric Analysis.
Srihari Sharma KN, Choudhary NR, Subramanya P.
Int J Yoga. 2019 May-Aug;12(2):162-171.
[ full text ]

Role of Yoga in Cardiac Disease and Rehabilitation.
Guddeti RR, Dang G, Williams MA, Alla VM.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2019 May;39(3):146-152.
[ full text ]

Yoga as Antihypertensive Lifestyle Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Wu Y, Johnson BT, Acabchuk RL, Chen S, Lewis HK, Livingston J, Park CL, Pescatello LS.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Mar;94(3):432-446.
[ abstract ]

Mind-Body Interventions, Psychological Stressors, and Quality of Life in Stroke Survivors.
Love MF, Sharrief A, Chaoul A, Savitz S, Beauchamp JES.
Stroke. 2019 Feb;50(2):434-440.
[ full text ]

A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Mindful Exercises on Rehabilitative Outcomes Among Poststroke Patients.
Zou L, Sasaki JE, Zeng N, Wang C, Sun L.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 May 5. (preprint)
[ abstract ]

Effects of Mind-Body Movements on Balance Function in Stroke Survivors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Zou L, Yeung A, Li C, Chiou SY, Zeng N, Tzeng HM, Wang L, Ren Z, Dean T, Thomas GA.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Jun 20;15(6).
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Yoga for Heart Failure: A Review and Future Research.
Pullen PR, Seffens WS, Thompson WR.
Int J Yoga. 2018 May-Aug;11(2):91-98.
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Mind-Body Interventions for Individuals With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials.
Gok Metin Z, Ejem D, Dionne-Odom JN, Turkman Y, Salvador C, Pamboukian S, Bakitas M.
J Card Fail. 2018 Mar;24(3):186-201.
[ abstract ]

Yoga for stroke rehabilitation.
Lawrence M, Celestino Junior FT, Matozinho HH, Govan L, Booth J, Beecher J.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 8;12:CD011483.
[ abstract ]

The hypotensive effect of Yoga's breathing exercises: A systematic review.
Brandani JZ, Mizuno J, Ciolac EG, Monteiro HL.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017 Aug;28:38-46.
[ abstract ]

Blood Pressure Response to Meditation and Yoga: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Park SH, Han KS.
J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Sep;23(9):685-695.
[ abstract ]

Determining the potential benefits of yoga in chronic stroke care: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Thayabaranathan T, Andrew NE, Immink MA, Hillier S, Stevens P, Stolwyk R, Kilkenny M, Cadilhac DA.
Top Stroke Rehabil. 2017 May;24(4):279-287.
[ abstract ]

Emerging Data Support Benefits of Yoga for Patients With Heart Disease.
Kuehn BM.
Circulation. 2017 Jan 24;135(4):398-399.
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Yoga as an Alternative and Complimentary Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review.
Haider T, Sharma M, Branscum P.
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2016 Jan 19. pii: 2156587215627390.
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The Efficacy and Safety of Yoga in Managing Hypertension.
Cramer H.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2016 Feb;124(2):65-70.
[ abstract ]

Yoga in the Management of Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Desveaux L, Lee A, Goldstein R, Brooks D.
Med Care. 2015 Jul;53(7):653-61.
[ abstract ]

Yoga and Cardiac Rehabilitation – A Brief Review of Evidence.
Yeung A, Chang D, Bensoussan A, Kiat H.
J Yoga Phys Ther 2015, 5:4.
[ full text ]

Yoga for hypertension: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.
Posadzki P, Cramer H, Kuzdzal A, Lee MS, Ernst E.
Complement Ther Med. 2014 Jun;22(3):511-22.
[ abstract ]

Yoga and hypertension: a systematic review.
Tyagi A, Cohen M.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2014 Mar-Apr;20(2):32-59.
[ abstract ]

A systematic review of yoga for heart disease.
Cramer H, Lauche R, Haller H, Dobos G, Michalsen A.
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2015 Mar;22(3):284-95.
[ abstract ]

Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.
Manchanda SC, Madan K.
Clin Res Cardiol. 2014 Sep;103(9):675-80.
[ abstract ]

Yoga for essential hypertension: a systematic review.
Wang J, Xiong X, Liu W.
PLoS One. 2013 Oct 4;8(10):e76357.
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Effectiveness of yoga for hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Hagins M, States R, Selfe T, Innes K.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:649836.
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Yoga and mindfulness as therapeutic interventions for stroke rehabilitation: a systematic review.
Lazaridou A, Philbrook P, Tzika AA.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:357108
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Notable Publications

Notable Publications

MediYoga as a part of a self-management programme among patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation - a randomised study.
Wahlström M, Rosenqvist M, Medin J, Walfridsson U, Rydell-Karlsson M.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2019 Sep 17:1474515119871796.
[ full text ]

Development of a Yoga-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation (Yoga-CaRe) Programme for Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction.
Chattopadhyay K, Chandrasekaran AM, Praveen PA, Manchanda SC, Madan K, Ajay VS, Singh K, Tillin T, Hughes AD, Chaturvedi N, Ebrahim S, Pocock S, Reddy KS, Tandon N, Prabhakaran D, Kinra S.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 May 2;2019:7470184.
[ full text ]

Effect of telerehabilitation on long-term adherence to yoga as an antihypertensive lifestyle intervention: Results of a randomized controlled trial.
Sarah S, Wolfgang MB, Claudia P.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019 May;35:148-153.
[ abstract ]

Perceived benefits and barriers to yoga participation after stroke: A focus group approach.
Harris A, Austin M, Blake TM, Bird ML.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019 Feb;34:153-156.
[ full text ]

Effect of Yoga-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation on Heart Rate Variability: Randomized Controlled Trial in Patients Post-MI.
Christa E, Srivastava P, Chandran DS, Jaryal AK, Yadav RK, Roy A, Deepak KK.
Int J Yoga Therap. 2019 Jan 31. (preprint)
[ abstract ]

Yoga in Arterial Hypertension.
Cramer H, Sellin C, Schumann D, Dobos G.
Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2018 Dec 14;115(50):833-839.
[ full text ]

Self-Management and Yoga for Older Adults with Chronic Stroke: A Mixed-Methods Study of Physical Fitness and Physical Activity.
Portz JD, Waddington E, Atler KE, Van Puymbroeck M, Schmid AA.
Clin Gerontol. 2018 Jul-Sep;41(4):374-381.
[ abstract ]

Effect of 1-Week Yoga-Based Residential Program on Cardiovascular Variables of Hypertensive Patients: A Comparative Study.
Metri KG, Pradhan B, Singh A, Nagendra HR.
Int J Yoga. 2018 May-Aug;11(2):170-174.
[ full text ]

Yoga-Based Postoperative Cardiac Rehabilitation Program for Improving Quality of Life and Stress Levels: Fifth-Year Follow-up through a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Amaravathi E, Ramarao NH, Raghuram N, Pradhan B.
Int J Yoga. 2018 Jan-Apr;11(1):44-52.
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Yoga - a laborious way to well-being: patients' experiences of yoga as a treatment for hypertension in primary care.
Wolff M, Brorsson A, Midlöv P, Sundquist K, Strandberg EL.
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2017 Dec;35(4):360-368.
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YOGA and self-regulation in management of essential arterial hypertension and associated emotional symptomatology: A randomized controlled trial.
Tolbaños Roche L, Miró Barrachina MT, Ibáñez Fernández I, Betancort M.
Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017 Nov;29:153-161.
[ abstract ]

Effects of Sheetali and Sheetkari Pranayamas on Blood Pressure and Autonomic Function in Hypertensive Patients.
Shetty P, Reddy B KK, Lakshmeesha DR, Shetty SP, Kumar G S, Bradley R.
Integr Med (Encinitas). 2017 Oct;16(5):32-37.
[ full text ]

Evaluation of the Feasibility of a Home-Based TeleYoga Intervention in Participants with Both Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure.
Donesky D, Selman L, McDermott K, Citron T, Howie-Esquivel J.
J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Sep;23(9):713-721.
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Effects of yoga versus hydrotherapy training on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure: A randomized controlled study.
Hägglund E, Hagerman I, Dencker K, Strömberg A.

[ abstract ]

Effects of yoga in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation - a randomized controlled study.
Wahlstrom M, Rydell Karlsson M, Medin J, Frykman V.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2017 Jan;16(1):57-63.
[ abstract ]

Comparison of yoga and walking-exercise on cardiac time intervals as a measure of cardiac function in elderly with increased pulse pressure.
Patil SG, Patil SS, Aithala MR, Das KK.
Indian Heart J. 2017 Jul - Aug;69(4):485-490.
[ full text ]

Impact of a short home-based yoga programme on blood pressure in patients with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial in primary care.
Wolff M, Rogers K, Erdal B, Chalmers JP, Sundquist K, Midlöv P.
J Hum Hypertens. 2016 Oct;30(10):599-605.
[ abstract ]

Blood Pressure Effects of Yoga, Alone or in Combination With Lifestyle Measures: Results of the Lifestyle Modification and Blood Pressure Study (LIMBS).
Cohen DL, Boudhar S, Bowler A, Townsend RR.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2016 Aug;18(8):809-16.
[ full text ]

Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension.
Nejati S, Zahiroddin A, Afrookhteh G, Rahmani S, Hoveida S.
J Tehran Heart Cent. 2015 Jul 3;10(3):140-8.
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Appropriateness and acceptability of a Tele-Yoga intervention for people with heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: qualitative findings from a controlled pilot study.
Selman L, McDermott K, Donesky D, Citron T, Howie-Esquivel J.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Feb 7;15:21.
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Additional benefit of yoga to standard lifestyle modification on blood pressure in prehypertensive subjects: a randomized controlled study.
Thiyagarajan R, Pal P, Pal GK, Subramanian SK, Trakroo M, Bobby Z, Das AK.
Hypertens Res. 2015 Jan;38(1):48-55.
[ abstract ]

Yoga leads to multiple physical improvements after stroke, a pilot study.
Schmid AA, Miller KK, Van Puymbroeck M, DeBaun-Sprague E.
Complement Ther Med. 2014 Dec;22(6):994-1000.
[ abstract ]

Yoga based cardiac rehabilitation after coronary artery bypass surgery: one-year results on LVEF, lipid profile and psychological states--a randomized controlled study.
Raghuram N, Parachuri VR, Swarnagowri MV, Babu S, Chaku R, Kulkarni R, Bhuyan B, Bhargav H, Nagendra HR.
Indian Heart J. 2014 Sep-Oct;66(5):490-502.
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Effect of yoga on oxidative stress in elderly with grade-I hypertension: a randomized controlled study.
Patil SG, Dhanakshirur GB, Aithala MR, Naregal G, Das KK.
J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Jul;8(7):BC04-7.
[ full text ]

A Randomized Controlled Trial to Study the Effect of Yoga Therapy on Cardiac Function and N Terminal Pro BNP in Heart Failure.
Krishna BH, Pal P, Pal G, Balachander J, Jayasettiaseelon E, Sreekanth Y, Sridhar M, Gaur G.
Integr Med Insights. 2014 Apr 1;9:1-6.
[ full text ]

Effect of yoga therapy on heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac autonomic function in heart failure.
Krishna BH, Pal P, G K P, J B, E J, Y S, M G S, G S G.
J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Jan;8(1):14-6.
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A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of yoga with an active control on ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension.
Hagins M, Rundle A, Consedine NS, Khalsa SB.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014 Jan;16(1):54-62.
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Psychosocial and cardiac outcomes of yoga for ICD patients: a randomized clinical control trial.
Toise SC, Sears SF, Schoenfeld MH, Blitzer ML, Marieb MA, Drury JH, Slade MD, Donohue TJ.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2014 Jan;37(1):48-62.
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Impact of yoga on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension - a controlled trial in primary care, matched for systolic blood pressure.
Wolff M, Sundquist K, Larsson Lönn S, Midlöv P.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2013 Dec 7;13:111.
[ full text ]

Effect of yogic intervention on the autonomic nervous system in the patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial.
Pal A, Srivastava N, Narain VS, Agrawal GG, Rani M.
East Mediterr Health J. 2013 May;19(5):452-8.
[ full text ]

Effect of yoga on arrhythmia burden, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: the YOGA My Heart Study.
Lakkireddy D, Atkins D, Pillarisetti J, Ryschon K, Bommana S, Drisko J, Vanga S, Dawn B.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Mar 19;61(11):1177-82.
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Blood pressure and Purdue pegboard scores in individuals with hypertension after alternate nostril breathing, breath awareness, and no intervention.
Telles S, Yadav A, Kumar N, Sharma S, Visweshwaraiah NK, Balkrishna A.
Med Sci Monit. 2013 Jan 21;19:61-6.
[ full text ]

The influence of the 2:1 yogic breathing technique on essential hypertension.
Adhana R, Gupta R, Dvivedii J, Ahmad S.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Jan-Mar;57(1):38-44.
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Beneficial effects of yoga lifestyle on reversibility of ischaemic heart disease: caring heart project of International Board of Yoga.
Yogendra J, Yogendra HJ, Ambardekar S, Lele RD, Shetty S, Dave M, Husein N.
J Assoc Physicians India. 2004 Apr;52:283-9.
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Retardation of coronary atherosclerosis with yoga lifestyle intervention.
Manchanda SC, Narang R, Reddy KS, Sachdeva U, Prabhakaran D, Dharmanand S, Rajani M, Bijlani R.
J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Jul;48(7):687-94.
[ abstract ]

Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.
Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, Brown SE, Gould KL, Merritt TA, Sparler S, Armstrong WT, Ports TA, Kirkeeide RL, Hogeboom C, Brand RJ.
JAMA. 1998 Dec 16;280(23):2001-7.
[ abstract ]

Randomised controlled trial of yoga and bio-feedback in management of hypertension.
Patel C, North WR.
Lancet. 1975 Jul 19;2(7925):93-5.
[ abstract ]

"Shavasan": A yogic exercise in the management of hypertension.
Datey KK, Deshmukh SN, Dalvi CP, Vinekar SL.
Angiology. 1969 Jun;20(6):325-33.
[ abstract ]

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